Kidney

Global fact: kidney diseases

According to American kidney fund, the term “chronic kidney disease” means lasting damage to the kidneys that can get worse over time. If the damage is very bad, your kidneys may stop working. This is called kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD). If your kidneys fail, you will need dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to live.

Diseases and conditions that cause chronic kidney disease include:

Type 1 or type 2 diabetes
, High blood pressure
Glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units (glomeruli)
Interstitial nephritic, an inflammation of the kidney’s tubules and surrounding structures
Polycystic kidney disease, Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from conditions such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones and some cancers
Vesicoureteral reflux (a condition that causes urine to back up into your kidneys)
Recurrent kidney infection, also called pyelonephritis.

Symptoms of chronic kidney disease CKD include Tiredness, swollen ankles, feet or hands, shortness of breath, feeling sick, blood in your pee (urine) in advance stage while it is difficult to see any symptoms in early stage except through urine test or other test.

Risk factors are
factors that may increase the risk of chronic kidney disease include:

Diabetes, High blood pressure
Heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease
Smoking, Obesity, Being African-American, Native American or Asian-American Family history of kidney disease, Abnormal kidney structure, Older age

Preventions
Follow instructions on over-the-counter medications.
Maintain a healthy weight. Don’t smoke,
Manage your medical conditions with your doctor’s help

10% of the worldwide population is affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD), and millions die each year because they do not have access to good and affordable treatment

Also according the 2010 Global Burden of Disease study, chronic kidney disease was ranked 27th in the list of causes of total number of deaths worldwide in 1990, but rose to 18th in 2010. This degree of movement up the list was second only to that for HIV and AIDs.

Over 2 million people worldwide currently receive treatment with dialysis or a kidney transplant to stay alive, yet this number may only represent 10% of people who actually need treatment to live.

Of the 2 million people who receive treatment for kidney failure, the majority are treated in only five countries – the United States, Japan, Germany, Brazil, and Italy. These five countries represent only 12% of the world population. Only 20% are treated in about 100 developing countries that make up over 50% of the world population.

But in sub-Saharan Africa, about 14% of the adult population suffers from chronic kidney disease . Between 1999 and 2006 South Africa saw a 67% rise in deaths as a result of chronic kidney disease.

More than 80% of all patients who receive treatment for kidney failure are in high-income countries with universal access to health care and large elderly populations.

It is estimated that number of cases of kidney failure will increase disproportionately in countries, such as China and India where the number of elderly people are increasing.

In middle-income countries, treatment with dialysis or kidney transplantation creates a huge financial burden for the majority of the people who need it. In another 112 countries, many people cannot afford its treatment at all, resulting in the death of over 1 million people annually from untreated kidney failure.

In people aged 65- 74 worldwide, it is estimated that one in five men, and one in four women, have chronic kidney disease.

Non-communicable diseases (such as heart disease, diabetes, or kidney disease) have replaced communicable diseases (such a as influenza, malaria, or AIDs) as the most common causes of premature death worldwide.

An estimated 80% of this burden occurs in low- or middle-income countries, and 25% is in people younger than 60 years.

Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide health crisis. For example, in the year 2005, there were approximately 58 million deaths worldwide, with 35 million attributed to chronic disease, according to the World Health Organization.

Chronic kidney disease can be treated. With early diagnosis and treatment, it’s possible to slow or stop the progression of kidney disease.

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