Although changes in mood and memory processes are behavioural influences of substance abuse, these effects are due to progressive brain damage, as follows:

▪Disruption of nutrients needed by brain tissue.
▪Direct damage, injury, and death of brain cells, including neurotransmitter receptors.
▪Alterations to brain chemical concentrations, including neurotransmitters and hormones.
▪Deprivation of oxygen to brain tissue.

These changes make it harder for those with an addiction to experience pleasure in response to natural rewards (such as food, sex, or positive social interactions), manage stress, control their impulses, and make the healthy choice to stop substance seeking and use.

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