Over 300,000 children worldwide are born with the Sickle Cell Disease (SCD), a genetic abnormality of the red blood cells in which they take a crescent or “sickle”- shaped appearance. Over half of these children die before the age of five.
With over 300,000 babies born with the sickle cell disease every year, Nigeria has the highest burden of Sickle cell disorders in the world. The 19th of June every year is set aside to commemorate the World Sickle Cell Day. This year, we explore 15 facts you need to know about Sickle Cell Disease.
- Sickle cell disease is the most common genetic blood disorder. Sickle cell disease is a genetic condition that occurs when a child receives a sickle cell trait from each parent. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, sickle cell disease affects about 25% of adults throughout Nigeria have the sickle cell trait, AS, while the Hb C trait is largely confined to the Yoruba people of southwestern Nigeria in whom it occurs in about 6%. It also affects millions of people worldwide and is most common in African, Mediterranean and Arabian Peninsula areas.
- Although sickle cell can affect people all around the world, the risk is higher in Africans or3
people of African descent.
- It affects many races, not just African Americans. While sickle cell disease is more common in African Americans (occurring in about 1 in 365 African American birth), it is still present in other racial populations including about 1 in 1,200 Hispanic Americans.
- Sickle Cell Disease is not contagious or infectious.
- People who have the sickle cell disease may develop various complications such as anaemia, stroke, tissue, organ and bone damage as well as pain due to the inability of the sickle-shaped red blood cells to carry oxygen normally and to cause blockage of blood vessels.
- People with the genotype AS, are carriers of the Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) but do not suffer any symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease. They can however pass it on to
- Hemoglobin SS is the most common type of sickle cell disease. There are many different types of sickle cell disease, but Hemoglobin SS type is the most common and is also called sickle cell anemia. It occurs when a person inherits a Hemoglobin S sickle trait from each parent.
- There is no cure for SCD yet. Although, some success has been recorded with bone marrow transplants.
- Specialized blood tests (Hemoglobin Electrophoresis and a CBC) are needed to confirm whether or not you have sickle cell trait or sickle cell disease. These tests look to see what type(s) of hemoglobin you make and if your hemoglobin level is low (aka anemia).
- Sickle cell disease causes red blood cells to “sickle” or become banana shaped when they are stressed and this can make it difficult for them to flow through blood vessels. Normal red blood cells are round and flexible and can move easily through blood vessels, but some of the cells in patients with sickle cell disease become crescent moon shaped and stick to blood vessels. This slows or can stop blood flow through blood vessels, which can cause pain, damage to organs and tissues, or even lead to a stroke.
- Some people with sickle cell disease need blood transfusions. Doctors can transfuse red blood cells from a matched blood donor without sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait to treat a patient with sickle cell disease.
- You can help by becoming a blood or bone marrow donor. Because patients with sickle cell disease occasionally need blood transfusions, you can sign up to donate blood here, or join the bone marrow registry donation here. The only proven cure for sickle cell disease is a bone marrow transplant.
- Breathing problems are very common in children with sickle cell disease. Breathing issues are under-recognized in children with sickle cell disease but very common. These can include such things as asthma, sleep problems, and recurrent pneumonia. Nationwide Children’s Hospital has a special pulmonary sickle cell clinic to help evaluate and treat these problems.
- There is currently only one drug can reduce painful sickle cell-related episodes. Hydroxyurea is a safe, disease modifying medication that has been proven in many trials to reduce complications and reduce mortality in patients with sickle cell disease.
- A person with SCD can live a long and active life as long as they undergo regular check-ups with a doctor, take their medications regularly, prevent infections through hygienic practices such as handwashing and drinking lots of water.
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